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The Human Nail Dust - Literature Review Example

7 pages
1832 words
University of Richmond
Type of paper: 
Literature review
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Podiatry is the field of health involved with the analysis, treatment, prevention, and management of medical illnesses involving lower limb, foot, and ankle. The person who performs the study is known as a podiatrist. Reports from research conducted in the United Kingdom indicate that significant amounts of dust from the nails during the drilling procedures are airborne. Besides, drilling procedures are performed to eliminate pain or to improve the quality of life of patients. Moreover, the dust is actively present in the air to a maximum of 10 hours after the clinical sessions. Notably, the podiatrists are at a high risk of getting infections in the respiratory tract. The policies and precautions involving the exposure to nail diseases as well as the associated risks vary according to methods of drilling used, the frequency of the procedures performed, the technique used in therapy, and the equipment used (Frowen, O'Donnell and Burrow 2010). Apparently, the dust from the nails is considered dangerous because they contain poisonous compounds such as Keratin, fungal elements, and microbial debris, which are detrimental to human health.

Frowen, O'Donnell and Burrow 2010 conducted a study to determine whether the podiatrist microbe species were different from those possessed by individuals not exposed to high levels of the dust emanating from the human nails during work. The basis of the study was conducted by fifty podiatrists who had volunteered to attend a podiatric conference. Forty-five therapy students also offered to act as the appraisal trial group in the research. A podiatry sample group was carefully matched with the therapy students. Written consent was first obtained before the onset of the study. The Charles Sturt University permitted the task in the department of ethics in Human Research. All the participants had to go through a medical check-up, and those diagnosed with respiratory infections such as asthma were excluded from the research.

The method of data collection required all the participants to sniff one adenoidal in each nostril by inserting an applicator made of cotton approximately three centimeters in the nostrils. Also, the participants were instructed to rotate the cotton alongside the nostrils. Consequently, the cottons were placed into Petri dishes consisting of dextrosed agar while the other one contained the same compound but with an addition of Gentamycin Actadione and Chloramphenicol to prevent bacteria as well as molds and to encourage the development of dermatophytes. The type of methodology involved used human beings as samples. The results from the experiment indicated that there was no difference between the individuals who worked in areas with high levels of nail dust and those who worked in areas with low levels of nail dust since they were all exposed to the fungal microbial bacteria (Frowen, O'Donnell and Burrow 2010). The microbial bacteria are airborne and hence easily transmittable from one individual to another.

Although pedicure is most frequently used as a treatment for the foot, many Podiatrists and Pedicurists undergo suffering from diseases and infections in the respiratory such as asthma, bronchitis, and chronic cough (Nowicka, Nawrot, Wlodarczyk, Pajaczkowska, Patrzalek, Pecak, Mozdyniewicz, and Fleischer 2016). Notably, dust from nails is a significant contributor to advancement in occupational conditions as well as transmission of infections to other co-workers. Thus, Nowicka et al. (2016) obtained 77 samples from the podiatrists and clients and later taken to the laboratory where they underwent a microscopy. The methodology involved the use of samples. Apparently, there was a possibility that the pathogenic fungus contaminated all the samples collected and hence there was a need for the practitioners to protect themselves. Putting precautions in place was essential to stop the pathogen from being transmitting in the salon environment. Also, the transmission of the pathogens leads to respiratory infections as well as an increase in allergic reactions. The article is relevant to my clinical practice because it outlines the diseases that come about as a result of the pathogens. Also, it also provides information on the importance of taking precautions during carrying out research involving the pathogens (Nowicka et al. 2016). In essence, the article supports that saying, prevention is better than cure.

Correspondingly, according to an article by Adibbi et al. (2016), nail products at home and in the salons have exposed pregnant women, children, and workers to potentially harmful chemicals. Notably, the subpopulations are vulnerable to toxic chemicals that may cause them harm. Ostensibly, workers in the salon are more exposed to the hazardous chemicals because of the long duration of the work periods comprising of days and weeks. Adibbi et al. (2016) conducted a study on the residents of California using a questionnaire and the reports from the quizzes indicated that the exposure of the workers in salons to chemicals was an environmental issue. In addition, most of the individuals who were affected originated from low social-economic backgrounds and approximately 80% of the salon workers in California are uneducated and hence lack knowledge on the dangers of the chemicals and the use of protective equipment such as nose-masks. Also, the information from the questionnaire claimed that most of the salon workforces were at higher risks of suffering from health-related issues such as asthma compared to other people who do not perform such tasks. Although the bacteria was airborne, the workers were more exposed to the pathogens and consequently the effects were drastic compared to the individuals who did different jobs.

In the same article by Adibbi et al. (2016), investigation was performed in California in regards to the nail products from the distributors. Notably, the study was entailed at providing information concerning chemicals such as toluene, dibutyl phthalate, and formaldehyde. The three compounds are typically termed as the toxic trio by the media. Unfortunately, the researchers discovered the presence of the toxic compounds in the nail equipment, which were considered to be free from the chemicals. Moreover, some of the banned chemicals by the Health and Safety authorities were found in the products. However, measures have been kept in place by countries to prohibit the use of specific products containing harmful chemicals. A good example is illustrated in countries such as Europe when Walmart Industry was asked to produce products that were free from compounds such as toluene and formaldehyde. In addition, a policy was formulated in the Walmart industry to create a list of the ingredients used in the packaged products. Also, the article provides information on how the Environmental Department in San Francisco conducted a recognition program that was voluntary. The program focused on salons and how to educate the workers on how to choose safe products that were free from toxic chemicals. In addition, the plan was to offer training to the workforces as well as to reduce the levels of exposure of the dust from nails by providing protective equipment and installing units of ventilation. Apparently, many countries have realized how dangerous the chemicals and hence are coming up with strategies that will curb the toxic substances that are dangerous to the human health. The article is essential to my clinical practice because it has provided information on the effects of the poisonous substances. Also, the report provides information on the preventive measure that can be kept in place such as the use of masks and gloves as well as the importance of keeping away from such toxic chemicals (Adibbi et al. 2016).

According to Burrow and McLarnon (2014), many individuals suffer from ailments whose treatments are not yet discovered. However, the podiatrists try to bring a difference out of their lives by making them be able to move from one position to another. Notably, the podiatrists treat ulcers in the foot; reduce toenails that are thickened, and minimize deformities in the foot. Apparently, research was conducted using sampling method where the primary objective was to test the purity of the air inhaled by human beings. Studies were held in the laboratories by use of air samplers. Some fungal microorganisms were isolated from the atmosphere whereas the others were introduced to the air. According to the study, podiatrists possess antibodies to the pathogens due to routine exposure to the microorganisms. Some of the measures suggested by the study to reduce the effectiveness of the fungal organisms originating from the nails include avoiding and complete elimination of the drilling procedures of the nails. In addition, educating, providing valuable information, and offering training to beauticians aids in the reduction of the cases of dust nails infections. The beauticians need to be taught how to identify nails that are possibly infected by the fungal disease and how to ensure there is safety equipment at workplaces. Although it is considered unethical to refuse to file or drill nails, the measures would avoid exposure as well as eliminate the effects of the microorganisms. According to research, the scrapping of the nails, which is done before the thickened nails are reduced, exposes an individual to fungal infections. Hence Health and Safety practitioners suggest that it would be safe when the nails are not drilled and instead, other alternatives are sought out. The article is relevant to my clinical research because apart from outlining the roles played by podiatrists, it has also explained the effects of the fungal microorganisms from the nails and measures on how to identify and control the infections.

Similarly, the methodology used in the article by Hainsworth, Hamblin, and Vanniasinkam (2015), was the use of sampling materials. The article was chosen because it provides information regarding on how podiatrists are exposed to toxic dust from human nails. Ostensibly, in most cases, the podiatric physicians normally use drills which obtain power from electricity to treat skin as well as nails conditions. Consequently, there is the production of dust from nails which is vacuumed inside bags in the grinding sites. Notably, most of the dusts from the nails are considered to be infected by the fungal microorganism because they were obtained from patients exhibiting symptoms of the disease. Due to the limited information regarding the nail-dust collected, there was a need to carry out experiments in the laboratories using sampling methods. The sampling method involved the collection and analyzing of fifty bags containing dust nails from medical clinics in the States of America. The sampling bags were then kept in a protected place where it would not infect other people. Consequently, the fungal growth that had emerged was vaccinated into dextrose agar from potatoes and was identified using morphological features. From the results of the study, the typical fungal pathogen isolated was the Trichophyton sudanese, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton rubrum. In essence, the existence of the microorganisms in the dust particles from nails would possibly pose a significant challenge in the health of the podiatrists as well as to other human beings.

According to an article by Donaldson et al (2013), drilling is a common procedure performed by podiatrists. The drilling process generates fine small particles that are airborne. Although most drilling equipment is manufactured using dust extraction facilities, it is possible that not all the dust particles get to be extracted by the machines. Factors that may contribute to the machines not working efficiently include poor maintenance...

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