Gender refers to the aspect of either masculine or feminine. Three articles will be analyzed to gain insight of the relationship between alcohol and sex. In this regard, the facet of sexuality is differentiated by biological features that one has. The characteristics may define one to be male or female. Over the years gender has been a controversial subject on different aspects ranging from roles played by each to the lifestyle that each person embraces. Drinking is a personal lifestyle, and people drink for various reasons some do it for leisure and enjoyment some use it to ease their depression, and others do it because they are addicts and they cannot help but drink. College women currently drink a lot as compared to the past days where drinking was mostly attached to men. In the contemporary society drinking in women is a norm in college the statistics for drinking women have risen.
College women's gender identity and their drinking choices by Elizabeth Likes Werle and L.Di Anne Borders is a journal of addictions and offender counseling. Werle and borders argue that the rates of drinking college women have risen compared to that of men (Werle and Borders p.16). The authors interviewed college student to ascertain the relationship between gender and drinking habits. Findings indicate that the high-risk alcohol drinkers perceived gender differently from the low-risk drinkers. The article suggests that in the old day's men drunk more than women but in the current day's women have recorded high numbers of drinking than men. Results show that in 2011 a higher percentage of high-risk college female drinkers was recorded (Werle and Borders p.18). Concerns have been raised concerning the risks that are associated with drinking and women. Among the dangers highlighted include health issues such as liver cirrhosis, ulcers among others that have been proven to be related to heavy and prolonged drinking. Additionally, sexual harassment has also been reported to be one of the risks because drunk women end up being raped and abused sexually (Werle and Borders p.21). Also, infections such as sexually transmitted diseases have been reported due to sexual abuses that drinking women go through. The purpose of the source is to develop a study on what women think about their gender about drinking. The investigation will act as a stepping stone for counseling of the high-risk drinking women.
The source is a trade journal of addictions and offender counseling, and all the rights are reserved to the American advice associating. It is a journal on counseling. The authors of the article are Elizabeth Likes Werle and L.Di Anne Borders. Werle works at the department of counseling and human services in the East Tennessee state university while Borders works at the office of counseling and education development at the University of North Carolina Greensboro. Borders is a Ph.D. holder in counselor education and supervisor while Werle is a Ph.D. holder in psychology and counseling (Werle and Borders p.27). The journal was first published in April 2017 by the American counseling association. The article was written to be a stepping stone for offering guidance and advice to high-risk female college students. The primary sources of the material are published literature and firsthand information from interviews with college students.
Associations between alcohol use and alcohol-related negative consequences among black and white college men and women by Nickeisha Clarke, Su-Young Kim, Helene R. White, Yang Jiao, Eun-Young Mun. Nuances a clear picture on the trends of alcohol among the college white and black adults by comparing the drinking rates among these adults with the previous history of alcohol. Findings indicate that the white college women experience extreme and distractive drinking before mid-adulthood age while the black adults experience it after this period(Clarke et al. p. 521). Clarke et al. examine the relationship between race, gender, and alcohol among the college adults. The investigation was done through a sampling of the adults from different colleges to come up with concrete and more representative report. The issue carried much weight when alcohol use was analyzed based on gender and not race this is because analysis on race did not show much difference between the white adults and the black adults (Clarke et al. p. 525). Results indicated that there is a higher percentage of women than men who indulge in high risk and self-damaging drinking. The race factor is limited in scope than gender because it is not significant due to the drinking habits that appear early in the whites and late in the blacks it could therefore not give a universal comparison. However, the analysis of race about gender is critical because there is diversity on ethnic backgrounds in the contemporary world than in the past (Clarke et al. p. 529). Clarke et al. depict that studies have put much emphasis on the adolescents and the middle-aged adults leaving a gap in the literature which curtains a comprehension on race about alcohol.
The author indicates that there are a lot of negative consequences associated with the massive drinking among the college student. Among them is the poor coordination in class after long hours of heavy drinking which results in hangovers. There is also weak academic performance due to much time being spent on alcohol leading to absconding courses and missing exams the students do not even get time to do personal studies (Clarke et al. p. 530). Besides, there is also a poor interpersonal relationship with peers and other people because in the state of being drunk people tend to fight, abuse and argue over petty issues. The psychological well-being of people is also hampered because they become depressed in the process of not achieving their personal goals alongside lousy relationship with people. Regarding gender, findings indicate that women suffer from destructive consequences of alcohol than men, for instance, they lose weight and gain more fat than muscle.
The information comes from a journal of studies on alcohol and drugs from Center for Alcohol Studies, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey. The authors are Nickeisha Clarke, Su-Young Kim, Helene R. White, Yang Jiao, Eun-Young Mun. Their academic qualifications are Clarke, White, Mun, and Kim are Ph.D. holders in psychology and related studies while Jiao is a master degree holder in psychology as well. The article was published in July 2013 with the aim of gaining an insight of the negative consequences related to alcohol among the white and black college students. The data was obtained from the integrate data which is a combination of alcohol study cases from 24 universities in the United States of America.
Teasing apart the roles of gender and alcohol in drinking consequences using an event-level analysis By Tara M. Dumas, Samantha Wells, Paul F. Tremblay, and Kathryn Graham examines the differences in university students probability of experiencing negative consequences of alcohol across a population of first-year students(Dumas et al. p. 321). The study was carried out for 26 weeks using a sample of 415 participants research indicated that men experienced at least one adverse consequence of alcohol while women were the worst hit. Among the results included are unprotected sex which might lead to sexually transmitted infection and unwanted pregnancies (Dumas et al. p. 324). Besides, it was established that those who drink tend to argue a lot and may end fighting and have poor relationships with peers and other people. Also, intoxicated driving is experienced and may lead to accidents and even death.
Dumas et al. explain that men tend to experience more negative consequences than women. They further depict that those values include fighting, poor relationship with peers and drunken driving among others. However, gender differences were not seen in consequences such as unprotected sex, unintended sex activity, memory loss and physical injury. The tendency of men having more negative effects related to alcohol is due to more consumption as compared to women (Dumas et al. p. 329). The authors focused on the first year student due to high rates of alcohol consumption than senior years student because they want to experiment and they have less experience on the disastrous consequences of alcohol. Data was gathered through questionnaires emailed to students of the University of South Western Ontario. It was then analyzed by use of binary regression.
The source is a journal on contemporary drug problems experienced by students in the course of their studies. It was first published in September 2013 by federal publishers, and therefore it is an indication that the federal government supported the research with the aim of helping the young adults from the disastrous consequences of alcohol. Dumas is a Ph.D. holder in psychology and social sciences from the Ontario university Canada wells is also a Ph.D. holder in psychology Graham and Tremblay and even doctorate holders and have written several books in the line of psychology.
It is important to note that the three articles convey the same information on alcohol and gender but using different dimensions. The first section written by Werle and Borders examines the consequences of drinking on women while the second article by Clarke et al. analyses the effects of alcohol on gender and race. They compare the two dimension as and indicate that competition is limited in scope because the whites and the blacks experience heavy drinking at different ages. The last article by Dumas et al. has a slightly different opinion because it depicts that men drink more than women and the consequences affect men much more than women.
Clarke, Nickeisha, et al. "Associations between alcohol use and alcohol-related negative consequences among Black and White college men and women." Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 74.4 (2013): 521-531.
Dumas, Tara M., et al. "Teasing apart the roles of gender and alcohol in drinking consequences using an event-level analysis." Contemporary Drug Problems 40.3 (2013): 321-349.
LikisWerle, Elizabeth, and L. DiAnne Borders. "College Women's Gender Identity and Their Drinking Choices." Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling 38.1 (2017): 16-32.
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