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Literature Review Sample: The Role of Women Police in Leadership

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University of Richmond
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Individuals in the society play some major roles and the role of the leader is one such role. Leaders have the great responsibilities and play the most vital and powerful role in the organisation (Deluga and Souza, 1991; Bennis, 2007). Various researchers (Chan and Brief, 2005; Khabele and Victor, 2008; Sanders and Henderson, 2013) agree that the leadership concept involves the deeply rooted relationships in the social settings which require the leadership theory and researches for integrating the behaviour and attributes of the leaders within the appropriate aspect of leader effectiveness and emergence. Khabele and Victor (2008) and Sanders and Henderson (2013) state that a leader is an individual who motivates, influences and helps others in contributing towards the success and effectiveness of an organization or place of work. In actual sense, there is no sphere where one can consider the women to be behind from the men, they also work as hard as the men do, they do prefer to drive the responsibilities of the main and most important job, and are not at all scared of any kind of challenges, women if given proper authority to perform may also surpass the performance as is expected to be given by men (Khabele and Victor, 2008; Sanders and Henderson, 2013).

The attitude to work harder is more in women as compared to that in the men (O'Connor, 2010). In no circumstances, the women may ever give up and witness some obstacles which they are unable to climb and pass (Waters and Ussery, 2007; Sanders and Henderson, 2013). Hence, in the field of police jobs women can perform in a better way as is expected from them. Provided that they are given authority to work, the results shall come up automatically (Sanders and Henderson, 2013). The posts which are handled by the men police officers can also be handled by the women giving out expected results and outcomes. So the posts and authority are very well and carefully holded up and outcome of results shall be really extra ordinary (Murphy, Eckstat, & Parker, 1995; Waters and Ussery, 2007).

This chapter will emphasize the literature review, which relates to the factors affecting the role of women police in the leadership and the decision making process, in terms of the conceptual framework and the studies from the previous researchers. The profile and the presence of the female leaders in the policing are related to some constrain in general by the subordinate place and the slow pace of the women in the workplace which is highly masculinity (Murphy, Eckstat, & Parker, 1995; Waters and Ussery, 2007; Sanders and Henderson, 2013). In the society, women are not considered equivalent to the male and are considered as the inferior species, because women are denied for the access of the both the utilitarian and honored role which is only open for the male members of the society (Lonsway, 2007; Colvin, 2016). The leadership role related to the societal affairs such as the role in the administration or affairs which include the governance or the religion is exclusively for the males of the society (Lonsway, 2007; Colvin, 2016). In a research done by the Brown (1998), Heidensohn (1992), Harwood (2006), Silvestri (2003) and the others on the women and the Policing indicates that women are trying to create their own way to the top in experiencing the issues in policing with identity, isolation, and hostility (Lonsway, 2007; Colvin, 2016). In many countries, there is an equal balance between the male and females in policing, but on the other hand in some countries such as Australia policing largely remains the profession for the males where the leadership is still being coded for the male of the society (Robinson, 2015; Chang-Hyeon Choi and , 2008). Investigations done the Kolb and Merrill-Sands asserts that an agricultural research organisation found that there are persistent mental models which reflect the experiences related to the masculine, life situations' of masculine and masculine values which confront the female members working in the non traditional workplaces (Robinson, 2015; Chang-Hyeon Choi and , 2008). In the policing sectors, such models sustain the cultural assumptions about the reward system and the decision making.

Meyerson and Fletcher further discussed that there are many causes which do act as constrain in the advancement of women in society and todays world, these are pretty straight forward as well (Colvin, 2016). Yus (2015) study also highlighted that there are many factors contributing to poor career advancement of women in the society. Almost all of the organizations are created by only men and these are also based on the experiences of the male dominancy experiences, the organizational definitions and exdefinitions of the comprehensive competence plus the leadership are very much predicated based on the traits which are stereotypically associatek8d with the male individuals aggressive, tough and decisive (Colvin, 2016).

The Gender-role socialisation and the stereotypes processes are found to be very much indicative of all kinds of discrimination in various cultures (Colvin, 2016; Yu, 2015). There are numerous complexities regarding female police officers and the officials discrimination in that the lady police officers are not at all pretty proportional to the male police as far as the number and the rank are concerned (Colvin, 2016; Yu, 2015). Like, the accurate ratio of the lady police officers in comparison to the male police is just 4:100 (Deluga and Souza, 1991; Dietz, 2000), which indicates that the ladies prefer very less being a police officer in comparison to that of men or they are less selected and shortlisted if we see the same case for men. As such there are rarely any lady police assistant commanders, commanders or any other rank which is higher (Dietz, 2000).

At the time when the lady police officers are parallel compared with the male police officers refer the day to day activities, the main recognition of the women police officer in management positions by senior officers is very small (Deluga and Souza, 1991; Dietz, 2000). Policies, proclamation, regulations, rules, and so on about women law enforcement officers have been instituted, but basically not succeed to hold up the women police. There is still an established interior inadequacy among the woman police officer themselves (1993:37) (Deluga and Souza, 1991; Colvin, 2016; Yu, 2015). Stereotypical images, legends and bogus conception concerning the women feature highly in investigations on the women in policing; lots of of the researchers at hand women's acute experiences in policing refer the context of a characteristic police society (Dietz, 2000; Colvin, 2016; Yu, 2015). Amanda Sinclair explain that it is much more frequently the case that male explain, teach and settle on control models: management is also frequently seen to be men's awareness: skilled by men to men, by means of illustrations of famous and great men' though the figure of women in the law enforcement sector is unhurriedly on the climb, there is incredibly fewer chances that have been exposed to their encounters refer the everyday (Dietz, 2000; Colvin, 2016; Yu, 2015). It is extremely obvious that the bulk of the female police in management control positions go from end to end through many encounters in their role. The woman police in control conversation is mainly built around 4 topics that are:

The type of guidance that a woman regulates should assume and the one that will ensemble her paramount; Females who are in management control positions; Gender; Leadership against an organization (Ghaffaradli-Doty and Carlson, 1979).

In the police division and many another profession as well, ladies have been in short supply in positions of authority and control. Colvin (2016), Ghaffaradli-Doty and Carlson (1979) and Yu2015) argue that the womanly leaders have a gigantic role to participate concerning the organizational refer the law enforcement. Moses Schultz (2015) tinted the real meaning of studying more about the police leaders (Ghaffaradli-Doty and Carlson, 1979). There are incomplete studies which have been conducted to illustrate the multifaceted nature of police management arguments mostly in ladies, and this also appears the cause as to why this theory seeks to drop the more brightness on the field of leadership, gender and police explore.

The police division is the one which has been going through frequent developments so as to cater for the complex and acute issues which are coming up in the day to day law enforcement division. As a result of this, the style of the management is altering gradually where they are closing down or are abandoning the trustworthy style which has been very ordinary and captivating up as an additional comprehensive way that is paying attention more on ways of empowering in its place of issuing instructions. In 2012, the National Institute of fairness and justice associated the method organizations assign positions and also compared the managerial structure of the law enforcement sector with the industrial developed plants (Gottschalk, 2011). The findings were similar to various researchers, including Colvin (2016), Ghaffaradli-Doty and Carlson (1979) and Yu2015) in that women in leadership is usually constrained.

Previous studies on the role of women police in leadership regarding aim, methodology, and view when viewed generally it can be noted that there is a limitation of the research. It is very much clear that the numbers of the women participating in the leadership and the police force is significantly very less (Dietz, 2000; Colvin, 2016; Yu, 2015). The former part of the research discussed about the different view of the studies that have been conducted in the field of women police. It will then focus on the type of leadership styles that are applied by the women police.

The Police sector being the male-overpowering sector, heartening the women to be an element of this demanding effort was hard in the center of the nineteenth century (International Association for Women Police; Dietz, 2000; Colvin, 2016; Yu, 2015). A big number of harms pertaining to the women are cleared and saved by the women police force, hence no basic requirement was necessary for women amalgamation in the force for what is additionally necessary to have knowledge in the social case job. Gradually women started increasing by establishing women bureaus and in progress connecting in a tour of duty after 1969 (Kharasova and Blazhenkova, 2015). Harms women police typically face in incoming the department are deficient personal time, need of recognition for high-quality effort, commerce with the media, gathering deadlines, operational overtime, commerce with emergency, lack of chance for progress, antagonism in work, insufficient salary, poor or not enough supervision, experience harmful attitudes towards the association, performing arts task further than their task, poor excellence of equipments, recurrent interruption, job shift, clash with other section, poorly aggravated coworkers, too much management lookover, demanding job related actions, task of new or strange duties, national conflict, etc (Anderson, Litzenberger, & Plecas, 2002; Texeira, 2002; Kharasova and Blazhenkova, 2015). Women in position of author...

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