Senior manager Developing new policy frameworks and identifying all departments which will be affected by the implementation of the new policies so as to ensure their involvement and commitment.
Helping the employees understand the expected policy and practice implementations so as to arouse their interest and create a feeling of the urgency to necessitate change.
Monitoring the implementation process by analyzing the feedback and generating new ideas (basing on the feedback) to ensure a successful process for each phase.
Identifying when each phase of the policy implementation process is complete so as to ensure a smooth transition to the next phase.
Line manager Engaging employees by encouraging teamwork as well as open communication and focusing on their strengths in the policy implementation process.
Objectively appraising the performance of the employees, rating them, identifying talent and giving the relevant feedback with regards to the process of the new policy implementation.
Encouraging employee commitment to the implementation process by setting goals and abiding by them while strictly following the laid down procedures.
Providing reports on the progress of the policy implementation process to the senior managers so as to lay the foundation for performance indicators and possible alterations or introduction of new ideas.
From the above table, it is clear that both senior managers and line managers play very crucial roles in the implementation of human resource policies and practices. The senior manager ensures that all the affected departments are involved in the implementation process, fosters an interest in the employees by explaining to them the need for the new policies and the consequences of not implementing them, monitors the implementation process for efficiency purposes and gives direction on when to transition from one phase of the implementation process to the next (Daley, 2012). These responsibilities help in the achievement of targets and goals that ensure the success of the new policy implementation procedure. On the other hand, the line manager promotes teamwork through employee engagement and open communication, carries out objective appraisal of the employees under them, leads by example so as to encourage employee commitment to achieve the new policy implementation goals and provides accurate feedback to the senior manager on the progress of the policy implementation process (Daley, 2012). For a successful implementation of the new HR practices and policies to take place, both the senior and line managers have to work together (Miner, 2015). The harmonious relationship is what would ensure a conducive environment that would usher a smooth policy implementation process.
The main objective of every business corporation is to sustain productivity by maximizing profits and minimizing costs. This objective can only be achieved if the appropriate human resource practices and policies are applied (Burke, 2017). A company may, for example, wish to introduce a fresh software program that ensures better management of the customer base. In this case, the senior managers will identify the departments that will be first affected by the new practice. If it is the sales department, then the senior management will have to liaise with the line manager in that department who will inform their team about the new development. They will then be expected to promote a spirit of teamwork through communication about the new policy. The employees will then be positively engaged and encouraged to work towards the common goal of ensuring the success of the new software. In the process, the line manager will appraise the implementation process that will inform the senior management of the progress. If the software works out well, then the senior team will decide if it is worth implementing in other departments and taking the policy a notch higher. In my opinion, the implementation of any policy has to consider the interests of both the employees and customers. This is because the main responsibility of implementing any HR policy or practice lies on the employees. If they are neither involved nor encouraged to participate, best practices and policies may never be implemented, and this may lead to the loss of revenue. Therefore, managers in all positions should be objective in their activities and ensure inclusivity so as to promote the smooth transition and implementation of company HR policies.
The analysis above can be supported by various human resource theoretical frameworks. The two theories that are most applicable to these analytical situations include Rensis Likerts Participative Decision Making Theory and Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory. According to Likerts theory, a strong manager is employee centered and focuses on human aspects that enable team success (Boxall and Macky, 2014). Likert believed that an effective manager treats an employee as a human being who is able to work towards the achievement of company goals if offered the right environment (Gawel, 1997). In the above analyses, the senior and line managers explain to the employees about the intended HR policy changes so that a spirit of teamwork is enhanced in the process of implementing these policies. The employees are involved from the beginning of the implementation process when they are identified and informed. From that point, they are involved throughout by being appraised and encouraged to communicate openly, with adjustments being made where necessary. Such an environment is likely to be productive as proposed by Likerts theory. The other theory that supports the above analyses is Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory. According to this theory, a manager must understand employee needs, what motivates an individual employee to work, and then come up with ways if satisfying these needs in an effort to achieve set goals (Dobre, 2013; Jackson, Schuler and Jiang, 2014). In the process of implementing HR policies, the senior and line managers in this analysis have understood that information is power. With proper information on why the HR changes are needed in the organization, the employees become motivated as they view themselves as part of the impending change. When the line manager further leads by example, appraises them objectively and identifies talent, the motivation rises. With such motivation, it becomes possible to have a smooth policy implementation process. I believe that the two theories are the most appropriate in laying the foundation for the implementation of HR practices and policies in any organization.
It is common knowledge that employees who are happy are more productive than those who are not. However, it sometimes becomes tricky for an organization to ensure that its employees are happy and motivated to work without necessarily having to increase their salaries. In the case presented, the organization would wish to keep its employees happy, yet it cannot afford to increase their salaries due to its tight budget. In that case, the tenets of suitable motivational theories would apply. The most applicable motivational theory, in this case, would be Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs theory. This is a motivational theory applicable to human resource. The theory emphasizes that every human being has a hierarchy of needs that must be satisfied for them to be motivated (Weiner, 2000). The hierarchy appears in the shape of a pyramid with the major and most immediate need being physiological, followed by security, a sense of belonging, self-esteem and finally, self-actualization (McLeod, 2007). Maslow felt that each need in the pyramid was crucial and for that reason, it would be very difficult for an individual to move from one stage of the hierarchy to the next if the needs for that stage were not met (Steel and Konig, 2006). An individual, for example, cannot feel that they have job security if their physiological needs remain unmet. Each step has to take place at a time. The following is an illustrative pyramid of Maslows hierarchy of needs (Huitt, 2004).
Self-actualization e.g. creativity
Esteem e.g. confidence
Love needs e.g. family, social interaction
Security needs e.g. job security, property
Physiological needs e.g. food, breathing, water
The first two needs at the bottom of the pyramid are the most basic and are referred to as deficiency needs while the other three are classified as growth needs. McLeod (2007) explains that if the deficiency needs remain unmet, an employee does not experience growth in the workplace, and if one feels that they have stagnated in their growth endeavor, then they lack the motivation to work. Managers should, therefore, make an effort to satisfy the employees' immediate needs so that they can experience job satisfaction and have the motivation to work. In my opinion, it is not the money and salary increment that increases the motivation of employees, but the non-monetary factors, leading to job satisfaction. The main aim of this essay is to demonstrate that money is not the only motivating factor that can make employees happy and productive in an organization. Although some organizations pay some of their employees handsomely, the compensation does not automatically translate into job satisfaction and more productivity.
Suggestions and Solutions
Based on the observations from the analyses and information derived from the motivation theories, there are some suggestions that can help an organization in making its employees happy, satisfied, motivated and productive. Such employees are, in most cases able to achieve and surpass the set goals of an organization. Money is not necessarily a factor in this motivation strategy. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory, the fulfillment of the deficiency needs is what motivates an employee to seek opportunities for growth (Cerasoli, Nicklin and Ford, 2014). In a work situation, managers and supervisors are responsible for ensuring that employees deficiency needs are first met so as to lay a foundation for motivation. This will work in ensuring that the organization is supportive, considerate and interested in the welfare of its employees without necessarily having to increase their salaries.
One way of satisfying the deficiency needs in accordance with Maslow's theory is the fulfillment of the employee's physiological needs. These needs may vary from water to sleep, breathing, food, excretion and homeostasis (Huitt, 2004). Although these needs vary, failure to meet them leads to a demotivated workforce. According to Dobre (2013), an employee who, for example, does not make enough money to cater for their basic needs cannot feel motivated enough to work. Therefore, the employee should be informed of their salary at the initial time they are hired so that they choose whether to take up the job or not and be paid promptly. Nevertheless, other needs must be met for the physiological need to be satisfied according to Maslows hierarchy. These needs can, for example, be fulfilled by establishing cafeterias that provide subsidized meals, drinking fountains and vending machines. Clean and comfortable sanitary facilities may also come in handy. Heating, cooling systems, and proper ventilation should also be installed to ensure a conducive physical environment for working. Policies for leaves and offs shoul...
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