Birhor is a forest-dwelling society whose population as of 2001 was approximately 4,000 people inhabiting in Eastern and central India in the states of Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand and West Bengal. Over the years the community has been concerned on the continual drop of the population. Regarding conflict resolution, disputes among the Birhor is decided by the council of elders in meetings. Majorly the council of elders noted to solve most of the conflicts, but in rare cases when a factional dispute threatens a settlement, the people are then split into two camps. Moreover, the Birhor belief is on the needs of the society thus propels the people to share their resources to ensure there is peacefulness fostered (Kurrey, Lokesh, Rakesh & Sharja, 2017). Based on the worldview of the culture, the community intent is to continue foster peacefulness and avoid any conflicts given the community promotes cooperative economic and cohesive social units. The primary feature in their conflict resolution approach to allow the elders to be responsible for solving many of the conflicts in the community, enable the city to have a centralized form of the judiciary.
Additionally, the community focus is to foster as much peace as possible to ensure cases of conflicts are reduced significantly. When the elders are pronouncing the judgments, the people responsible are expected to demonstrate a sorry face and be willing to take up the experience with ease without any resistance. In the event the participant declines to take up the judgment pronounced is then excommunicated from the community (Pal, 2017). However, there are sporadic cases when the participants do not incline to the clear discernment. The Birhor is an exciting community which has very high regard for human relationships to other humans, spirits, nature, and self. Their sense of self is the primary reason I selected the community as they find all means to ensure there is peace maintained in the community. Moreover, their methodology in resolving conflicts in the community first seeks forgiveness and reconciliation before any judgment is ruled. In many cities today there is less consideration made on the peaceful living as many communities have adopted self-living in place of communal life. Therefore, currently, many people prefer to fulfill their needs first before others which aggravate conflict in the community in particular sharing of resources. Thus in a town like Birhor where resources are shared equally, it is an exciting community to study.
Team conflicts are noted to occur inevitably in every community preparation to deal with it in a rational, positive manner saves the community from further trouble. The meeting approach used by Birhor by allowing the elders to make the decisions has several noted advantages. First, by the elders involving both parties in conflict and stressing on the need to ensure there are forgiveness and harmony in the community allows the culprits to understand there is a problem that needs to be solved. Therefore, this allows the parties involved to deal with the situation in a calm manner (Manna Sarkar & Ghosh, 2013). Second, the meeting held by the elders to resolve the conflict enables them to gather the needed information about the different interests, needs, concerns, and viewpoints. With the various issues examined, it becomes easier for the elders to establish the impact on the community productivity objectively. Third, through the conflict resolution meetings, the elders and the community members can generate new ideas and trigger any creative thinking. However, there are identified with this conflict resolution approach. First, in the attempt of the elders to resolve the problem through the meeting, there is a probability of the issue escalating even after admitting the misconduct that made the parties appear to the elders council in the first place. Second, through the conflict resolution, there are winners and losers. The losers have a high probability to feel the winners emerged victorious due to they are favored status especially in scenarios where the elders are forced to choose one point of view. Third, by the elders interrogating the concerned parties, there is a high likelihood of the parties feeling manipulated due to the extensive questioning which may invade their privacy.
The meeting approach is different from my conflict resolution approach which involves negotiation. During negotiations, the relevant parties are given an equal opportunity to present their case without the involvement of a third party. Through talk, there are no losers or winners, and with no judgment from a third party, the individuals are likely to reach a compromise. Moreover, with no influence from a third party, there is no personal information brought to the open, thus no personal invasion. Additionally, when only the individuals with the issues involved in conflict resolutions there is a higher likelihood of the matter is resolved and no longer recurring as they are not hiding any information from a third party.
Approximately 250,000 Syrians have been reported to have lost their lives in the last four, and half years the country has been in the midst of armed conflict. The onset of the chaos was initiated by anti-government protests that later escalated to full-scale civil war. Reports have indicated more than 11 million people have been internally displaced. The government of Syrian has over the years resulted in opening fires to the demonstrators hence killing more citizens. Additionally, many Syrians have acknowledged they are continually living on the edge of life, and they are always nervous and afraid. Upon the intervention of the UN, it was established both parties had committed crimes (civilians and government). Therefore, there is the need for the government to ensure the country is stable. However, the methodology used by the government to provide their way is being obeyed has not born any fruits as the state is still being affected by the wars. Moreover, in scenarios where people feel the ruling party is instilling their way without any consultation, there is a very high probability of the people revolting.
Therefore, I propose the case would have been handled differently, the Birhor method of conflict resolution involves the elders of council passing out judgment to the culprits. In Syrias case despite the UN intervention, they are still adamant to allow any third party to get involved with their situation. Thus this leaves them with trying to solve their cases in a confrontation manner. In cases where both parties are in a confrontation there is a high likelihood in place of a solution being attained there is likelihood of emotions running very high. Civil war is not always the answer to burning issues instead it further aggravates the parties who feel defeated. Therefore, by allowing a third party get involved in the current country predicament will enable the people and the government to be given an equal opportunity to table their grievances. Birhor is noted to be a very peaceful community who try to share most of their resources to ensure there is harmony at all times (Premi, 2014). This is different with Syrian who are known to prefer wars over the discussion. Indeed there is the need for the country to try and embrace harmony and ensuring they live in peace at all times. The Syrian conflict can be noted by many to be beyond any resolution, but there is still hope in the event the government will be willing to listen to the UN council and in place of continual war and conflict from both sides allow the leaders from a third party to intervene and try to offer solutions.
In summary, Birhor is recognized as a very peaceful community who are noted to prefer to solve their conflict via involvement of the elders of the community in the meetings. The community is further recognized to be capable of sharing its resources and living a community drive lifestyle. This is central to Syrian who is in constant war with the government as they try to ensure their issues are addressed. Moreover, the more a community is capable of maintaining peace, it can run its development agendas in a more refined and accomplished way. Birhor is a community which has very high regard to human relationships and ensures they are maintained which is a very positive attribute the Syrians need to strive to attain for the country to advance and be able to take care of its citizens.
Kurrey, V. K., Lokesh, S., Rakesh, N., & Sharja, P. (2017). Study of health status and morbidity pattern in 5-18 years Birhor children: A primitive tribe of Chhattisgarh. Indian Journal of Child Health, 4(2).Manna, S., Sarkar, R., & Ghosh, A. (2013). Education and Patterns of Marriage System: A Micro Study on the Birhors in Hazaribag District, Jharkhand. International Journal of Social Science, 2(2), 109.Pal, T. (2017). VULNERABLE BIRHOR TRIBE IN WEST BENGAL AND JHARKHAND: THE CHALLENGES. Global Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 6(7).Premi, J. K. (2014). Birhor: The In consequential Extraordinary Primitive Tribal Group (PTG) of India. Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(4), 366-369.
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