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Annotated Bibliography Example: Mental Illness and the Criminal Justice System

6 pages
1552 words
University of Richmond
Type of paper: 
Annotated bibliography
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Kim, K. (2015). The processing and treatment of mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system.

It is a research report that addresses the effort put in place to provide the best-evidence programs and cost-effective policies that would enhance the management and treating of the mentally ill people in the criminal justice system

The paper is a research report that was published in March 2015 by the urban institute, and it is with their attribution that any person can be allowed to reproduce the paper. KiDeuk Kim wrote it, and the publishers can be reached from their website on The information is very reliable as it addresses the current issues in the docket of criminal justice for the mentally ill individuals. The information provided has high accuracy as it addresses the issues at hand with regards to the topic. The paper discusses mental illness in the justice system as a close-range concern for the people and the article, therefore, makes efforts into designing and establishing the best evidence-based programs that are cost-effective for the institutions. These programs are meant to help in the management of the mentally ill persons. The plans are also set to address policies with coordinated services on the absorption of these people back to the society. The paper is meant for the people who prioritize on the health of the mentally ill criminals, and its information is reliable for research purpose.

Criminal justice for the people is addressed regarding ensuring that their health status is recognized and therefore developing measures to deal and appropriately handle them. The report finds out that the range of mental health services is very brand and additionally very expensive. The high costs result from their unpredictable negative behaviors and misconduct thus causing a lot of accidents and injuries. The report suggests on programs like the mental health courts, community-based interaction programs and pretrial diversion programs that could help in solving the problem. There is still room for further research whereby a state-by-state comparison of the existing programs can be made to gather more information on the topic.

Taslitz, A. E. (2007). Mental Health and Criminal Justice-An Overview. Crim. Just., 22, 4.

Justice for the mentally ill criminals should only be issued after a proper interrogation and investigation. The paper, therefore, suggests the development of better systems to improve on the investigations thus excluding the cases where judges conclude on guiltiness of the victim through observation.

The paper is a symposium written by Professor Andrew, a professor of law at the Howard University School of Law and produced in the year 2007. Professor Andrew discusses the condition of the mentally ill people in prisons saying that the prisons have of late become the dumping places for the mentally ill people. The paper also addresses the harsh justice practices that the mentally ill criminals are subjected to during interrogations and issuing of judgments for their alleged criminal activities. It addresses the issue in concern pointing out that the current means of gathering information from the mentally ill individuals display a lot of ignorance of their mental health. Justice is therefore not served right for them and concludes that if such continues, then the system will remain ineffective and making the wrong judgments on the right people.

The paper provides the need to investigate and understand legal basis that would develop arguments that would protect the mentally ill individuals from the harassment they in the prisons in cases where they are required to confess. As such, it provides some room for further research to realize the best way to gather information from the victims.

MacPhail, A., & Verdun-Jones, S. (2013). Mental illness and the criminal justice system. Montreal: International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy.

The write up addresses the existing relationship between mental health and criminal offenses

which lead to the search for criminal justice for the mentally ill persons. The health status is

linked to violence according to this paper, and therefore its an issue of concern.

This is a paper by MacPhail and Verdun-Jones, a board member at the ICCLR and Professor in the School of Criminology, SFU, respectively. It was published in January 2013 thus making it very relevant to the current occurrences in the sector. According to the Mental Health Commission of Canada, there is a general view by the general public that mentally ill people are very dangerous. However, the research shows that this is only a case for the seriously ill people and in most cases, it happens when they are provoked. As such, the paper raises concerns about whether people with mental illnesses should be subjected to the criminal law or the law should be lenient in the judgment. Some researchers conclude that the notion that mentally ill people are closely connected to violence is misleading and pointing out that some of them have become victims of the criminal injustices. Other people use their weakness as an open point to hurt them.

The essence of this paper, therefore, is to make it clear of the relationship between mental illness and engagement in criminal activities. The criminal system and the community should, therefore, be aware that the mentally ill people are not always violent and the origin of violence thereof can be caused by other factors like the provocation.

Beijersbergen, K. A., Dirkzwager, A. J., Eichelsheim, V. I., Laan, P. H., & Nieuwbeerta, P. (2014). Procedural justice and prisoners' mental health problems: a longitudinal study. Criminal behavior and mental health, 24(2), 100-112.

The research paper works to determine the relationship between a procedural justice for the prisoners and the status of their mental health. Moreover, a fair procedural justice issues a just judgment to the prisoner and therefore serves the prisoner right.

This is Beijersbergen and colleagues composed a research paper in 2014 and it the second volume of the publication. Such gives room for prior investigations and designed determinants of the condition to make proper judgments. Some prisoners raise concerns that the justice procedures are not always fair, humane and do not uphold the respect for the prisoners. The research is very relevant in that the mental status of the prisoners is essential as a significant consideration in determining the outcome of judgment. The procedural justice theory suggests that when people are treated with respect, justice, and fairness, then they cooperate with most of the procedures.

The results of the paper are very relevant in its application because the can be used for policy making and practices in the prison departments. Further research could address how the criminal law can be used in determining procedural justice for the prisoners.

Espinosa, E. M., Sorensen, J. R., & Lopez, M. A. (2013). Youth pathways to placement: The influence of gender, mental health need, and trauma on confinement in the juvenile justice system. Journal of youth and adolescence, 42(12), 1824-1836.

This is a study that examines the influence that mental health has on making juveniles commit crimes by which they later influence the juvenile criminal system.

The paper is written by Erin Espinosa, John Sorensen and Molly Lopez where they elaborate on a juvenile justice system where they point out that the girl child has remained in the limelight regarding committing crimes from the mental development problems. The paper was published on 4th July 2013 in New York. The Criminal justice is not fair for the mentally ill male culprits because the female counterparts are more favored. The study finds that the criminal system can only be appropriate if some programs are developed to boost and correct the whole system. The suggested programs include a community-based supervision and prevention programs to the factors that result in their mental illness like the use of drugs.

The relevance of the study comes in where the criminal system should be adjusted to handle even the juvenile mental illness cases. As a result, the communities can address the juvenile cases which they are facing in their society for the betterment of the society at large. The study provides room for further research where the juvenile system can be incorporated into the community-based system so that any upcoming issues can first be addressed locally before they proceed to the principal criminal offices. That way the community will have been faced with shame.

The United States Department of Justice Archives. (2009, December 1). Addressing Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved From

The website USDJA seeks to link up the mental health programs to take care of the mentally ill people either while serving their criminal terms or while awaiting their criminal justice.

The website was updated on April 7, 2017, thus making giving more relevant information. It gives statistics on the prevalence of mental illness where it rates it at 16.9 percent being adults in the local jails which is at a rate of three to six times as compared to the general population. As a result, some programs exist like the Mental Health Collaboration Program that works in improving the criminal justice that is granted to the people.

The website becomes relevant to the article where the criminal justice department links with other organizations to improve the health of the mentally ill persons even when in jail. It serves them right as they can receive access to proper healthcare which is majorly advocated for by the mental health advocates.

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